Since it is a functional insole, it is naturally divided by function. The insoles currently on the market can be roughly divided into three types: cushioning insoles, support insoles and fully customized insoles. There will be a big difference between different types. For example, support type insoles will be much harder than cushioning type insoles.
The cushioning insole materials currently on the market can be roughly divided into EVA, PU, silicone and ORTHOLITE. However, it is difficult for a single material to provide ideal cushioning. Professional sports insoles are generally made of multiple materials.
Supportive insoles are generally preformed, and the arches are either elastic or hard. The main purpose is to provide good support and correct flat feet. In other words, supportive insoles are mainly produced for flat feet (there are also those suitable for medium and high arches), and normal arches may feel uncomfortable.
So don't try to buy supportive insoles to play, it's really deadly.
The fully customized category is the mysterious insole in the NBA star shoes that we are quite curious about. This type of insole is completely thermoformed according to the foot shape and standing posture, and is matched with specific materials. Because it is completely suitable for your foot shape, the support and cushioning of this type of insole are very good, and it can also provide good foot correction. The price of such insoles is generally more than $200, and the upper limit can be increased to the legendary $5000 according to the level. Most of these prices are professional surveyor/physician labor. Because most people don't use these insoles at all.
Finally, for functional insoles, hard shoes are generally paired with soft pads, and soft shoes are paired with hard pads, so the effect is better. If you pursue softness too much, it will be counterproductive.